Justification by Faith, Part 1

The New Sacrifice In the midst of my series on the Eucharist, I discussed the prophecy of Malachi and concluded that what God wanted most was followers who love him: Cyril had identified the incense and pure sacrifice spoken of by Malachi as the blessings, praise, and glory that the church—congregation—offers to …

Justification By Faith

The upcoming series on faith will be a collection of separated, but related, essays. Starting on Monday, May 13, I will post a new article each weekday until the series concludes on May 21. Here is the index: Prelude #1: The Eucharist Prelude #2: The Living Voice Prelude #3: Changing …

Changing Language

In “Living Voice,” I discussed the official Roman Catholic position on scripture and teased the upcoming series on justification by faith. But, before we delve into the new series, I want to continue setting up the background for that post. One of the more common problems one faces when discussing …

The Living Voice

In my series on the Eucharist, I discussed a few Roman Catholic apologists: FishEaters, Church Fathers, and Joshua Charles. One of the issues I highlighted was what is known as “quote mining,” where a quote is taken out-of-context or twisted to say something that it doesn’t say. Well, it will be …

The Eucharist, Part 40: Conclusion

Summary The chart above summarizes what we’ve found throughout this series. First, the ancient liturgy… Dismissal Eucharist Oblation Epiclesis Lord’s Supper …is strongly attested to. Sixteen out of seventeen writers that we examined in the first 300 years affirmatively assert an ancient, non-Roman liturgy. They don’t always discuss all aspects …

The Eucharist, Part 38: Didascalia Apostolorum

Didascalia Apostolorum What is the Didascalia Apostolorum? Let’s let the Catholic Encyclopedia explain: The Didascalia Apostolorum is a heretical forgery of questionable reliability. The document is not completely useless for our purposes, but it’s not particularly helpful either. There are, however, a few areas of interest. The offering described is …

The Eucharist, Part 36: Irenaeus, Revisted

Irenaeus After I posted Part 6: Irenaeus of Lyons, Timothy Kauffman posted a fantastic Twitter thread here that does a great job summarizing the issues. I’ve imported the thread in its entirety here, while adding links, explicit citations and references, and other markup. I’ve also added some of my own commentary at the end. …

The Eucharist, Part 35: First Council of Nicaea

First Council of Nicaea Throughout this series I’ve mentioned off and on that the early church banned kneeling. Besides the Council of Nicaea, we have a few other ancient references that make the same attestation: But Roman Catholics are required to kneel, in direct violation with the apostolic teaching. Kneeling …